Advanced Chemical Methods for Soil and Clay Minerals by Bernard A. Goodman (auth.), J. W. Stucki, W. L. Banwart PDF

By Bernard A. Goodman (auth.), J. W. Stucki, W. L. Banwart (eds.)

ISBN-10: 9400990944

ISBN-13: 9789400990944

ISBN-10: 9400990960

ISBN-13: 9789400990968

During the earlier few years there was a marked elevate within the use of complex chemical tools in reviews of soil and clay mineral structures, yet just a rather small variety of soil and clay scientists became in detail associ­ ated and familiar with those new innovations. might be an important stumbling blocks to expertise move during this zone are: 1) many soil and clay chemists have had inadequate possibilities to discover extensive the operating ideas of newer spectroscopic advancements, and hence are not able to take advantage of the immense wealth of knowledge that's to be had in the course of the software of such advert­ vanced expertise to soil chemical study; and a pair of) the required gear gen­ erally is unavailable until collaborative initiatives are undertaken with chemists and physicists who have already got the tools. the target of the NATO complex examine Institute held on the college of Illinois from July 23 to August four, 1979, used to be to partly alleviate those stumbling blocks. This quantity, that is an broadly edited and reviewed model of the court cases of that complicated learn Institute, is a necessary point of that function. Herein are summarized the idea and most modern functions of six varied spectroscopic the right way to soil and/or clay mineral platforms. The instrumental equipment tested are Mossbauer, neutron scattering, x-ray photoelectron (XPS, ESCA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR, EPR), and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Contributing authors have been additionally teachers on the complicated examine Institute, and are each one renowned and revered experts of their respective disciplines.

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Additional info for Advanced Chemical Methods for Soil and Clay Minerals Research: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at the University of Illinois, July 23 – August 4, 1979

Sample text

Representative spectra of some chlorites were presented in section 1-4 (Fig. 1-47) but the question of the extent of substitution of iron in the brucite-like sheet was left unanswered. It has been reported that heating a chlorite beyond the temperature of its major DTA endotherm followed by digestion with HCI, leads to the loss of the brucite-like hydroxide sheet and the formation of vermiculite (45). The work (24) in which MCissbauer spectroscopy has been used in the study of this reaction will now be reported in some detail.

0" • • • ••• o I: * • 0 ·0 • 0 • • 8 - I I I -1 -2 -3 Velocity / I I I 0 -1 1 2 mm s I Figure 1-27. Mossbauer spectrum of an orthopyroxene at 77K (adapted from Virgo and Hafner, 1969). 0- .. . ,. :_, '" . 2r- .. ::........ :..... , • o. o o o • o :: . " 0 00 0 00 81- I -3 I -2 I -1 I I 0 1 Velocdy/ mm s-1 I 2 I I 3 4 Figure 1-28. Mossbauer spectrum at 17K of the orthopyroxene used for Fig. 1-27 after it had been annealed at 1000°C (adapted from Virgo and Hafner, 1969). B. A. -1 Figure 1-29.

The spectra obtained from the reduction of several nontronite specimens with hydrazine have been found to be similar to one another (47) and a typical spectrum is shown in Fig. 1-52a. Peaks AA' and BB' arise from the Fe 3 + in octahedral sites and peak CC' from tetrahedral sites as discussed for the original nontronites. Peaks DO' are assigned to Fe 2 + and correspond to - 10% of the total iron. The widths of these Fe 2 + peaks are quite small indicating that reduction could be occurring selectively at one type of site.

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Advanced Chemical Methods for Soil and Clay Minerals Research: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at the University of Illinois, July 23 – August 4, 1979 by Bernard A. Goodman (auth.), J. W. Stucki, W. L. Banwart (eds.)


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