By Jon Erickson
The learn of fossils, minerals, and gem stones has performed the most important roles in expanding our wisdom in regards to the Earth, the alterations the planet has passed through, and the species that experience inhabited it. This quantity introduces the interesting disciplines of geology, paleontology, and mineralogy, and the way they demonstrate secrets and techniques of the Earth's heritage. assurance contains: a scientific therapy of Earth historical past, rock kinds, marine fossils, terrestrial fossils, crystals, gemstones, and priceless metals that offer insights into Earth's personality; the most up-tp-date info on hand on such subject matters as worldwide tectonics and faunal extinctions, together with a wealth of knowledge concerning the death of dinosaurs; new applied sciences in detecting and conserving rocks and minerals; and the consequences of abrasion and weather alterations.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Fossils and Minerals: Seeking Clues to the Earth's Past (Living Earth)
Toward the end of the Cretaceous, North America and Europe were no longer in contact except for a land bridge created by Greenland to the north. The dinosaurs, along with 70 percent of all other known species, abruptly went extinct 65 million years ago. (Photo by N. H. Africa moved northward and began to close the Tethys Sea, leaving Antarctica, which was still attached to Australia, far behind. As Antarctica and Australia moved eastward, a rift developed and began to separate them. The crust rifted open on the west side of India, and massive amounts of molten rock poured onto the landmass, blanketing much of west central India, known as the Deccan Traps.
Perhaps one of the most dramatic climate changes in geologic history took place during the present interglacial known as the Holocene epoch, which began about 11,000 years ago. The retreating glaciers left an assortment of glacial deposits in their wake, including sinuous eskers, elongated drumlins, and immense boulder fields (Fig. 17). About a third of the ice melted between 16,000 and 12,000 years ago, when average global temperatures increased about five degrees Celsius to nearly present levels.
The development of improved analytical techniques has increased the usefulness of radiocarbon dating, and it can be used to date events taking place more than 100,000 years ago. Furthermore, paleontologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians now have a means of accurately dating events from our distant past. 44 clues to the past Figure 31 Scientist dating a sample by the radiocarbon method. (Courtesy USGS) THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE Geologists measure geologic time by tracing fossils through the rock strata and noticing the greater change in the deeper rocks than in those near the surface.
An Introduction to Fossils and Minerals: Seeking Clues to the Earth's Past (Living Earth) by Jon Erickson