By Geological Society Publications
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that enables non-destructive imaging and quantification of inner gains of gadgets. It was once initially built as a scientific imaging method, however it is now additionally changing into accepted for the examine of fabrics in engineering and the geosciences. X-ray CT unearths modifications in density and atomic composition and will hence be used for the examine of porosity, the relative distribution of contrasting sturdy stages and the penetration of injected recommendations. As a non-destructive procedure, it's best for tracking of tactics, akin to the stream of recommendations and the behaviour of fabrics lower than compression. simply because huge numbers of parallel two-dimensional cross-sections will be acquired, three-d representations of chosen good points will be created. during this publication, numerous purposes of X-ray CT within the geosciences are illustrated through papers protecting quite a lot of disciplines, together with petrology, soil technological know-how, petroleum geology, geomechanics and sedimentology.
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Additional info for Applications of X-ray computed tomography in the geosciences
1991) and MacAllister et al. (1990). Thus, the use of Eq. 16 is limited and must be undertaken with caution. Fig. 6. 3D reconstruction of water saturation in a sandpack undergoing hot-water flood (after Akin et al. 1998). Flow is from right to left. Times are given as pore volumes of water injected. Water temperature is increased during the experiment. Left images: 70°F (21°C). Centre: 122°F (50°C). Right: 150°F (66°C). CT IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING RESEARCH 33 Determination of three-phase saturations Several different methods exist for calculating three-phase saturations using a CT scanner.
1980. Image Reconstruction from Projections. The Fundamentals of Computerized 1991. Computed tomography for the quantitaTomography. Academic Press, New York. tive characterization of flow through a porous medium. , NARANAYAN, R. A. 1990. An experimental study of miscible displacements nical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of in heterogeneous carbonate cores using X-ray CT. Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, Texas, 6—9 October, In: Proceedings of the 65th Annual Technical ConPaper SPE 22595. J.
Thus, this procedure is not generally recommended. Spatial resolution is particularly important if the CT data will be used to measure fracture aperture (Hunt et al. 1987). The minimum values that medical scanners can resolve are between 1 to 2mm in spatial resolution. In the study of Hunt et al. 5mm. An alternative to direct measurement is the missing mass technique suggested by Johns et al. (1993). 01 mm to be inferred by using a medical CT scanner. Jasti et al. 01 mm. In contrast to a medical scanner, where a twodimensional fan-shaped X-ray beam illuminates an object, their high resolution system uses a cone-shaped microfocal X-ray beam.
Applications of X-ray computed tomography in the geosciences by Geological Society Publications