By Lacey, Walter Kirkpatrick
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Additional resources for Augustus and the Principate: the Evolution of the System
During the medieval era the Church WORDS IN CONTEXT established its organization, or hierarchy; it Christendom laid out the sacraments that ordered people’s The Christian world of lives and ensured them a place in heaven; Europe. it detailed the morality and responsibilities that people owed to God. For people of the Middle Ages religion dictated behavior, and religious activities were central to day-to-day living. The Middle Ages was an age of faith. The Church Hierarchy In the Church, the pope was recognized as God’s representative on Earth, and he appointed the cardinals—the high clergy of the Church.
Poulterers flung chicken heads and feathers into the streets. Dyers released noisome [smelly] waters from their vats. City officials in Italy would throw the fishmonger’s unsold fish into the street for the poor, to make sure it would not sicken honest purchasers. Pigs ran free as scavengers, and in London “genteel dogs,” though not commoners’ dogs, were allowed to roam at will. Flies settled in clouds to their banquets. . 31 Few cities had a sewer system, either, and no one had a bathroom, so sanitation was a serious problem.
They paid a fee to get married and a fee when a father died and his son or widow took over the land. They paid fines for failing to pay rents on their houses or failing to hand over the proper number of eggs from laying geese or for not participating in haying the lord’s fields. They even were fined for failing to keep their sheep in the lord’s barn during the winter so that the lord could have the manure for his own fields. In the village of Elton, in 38 1320, four peasants were fined “threepence” each for letting too many bean seeds fall into each hole during planting time.
Augustus and the Principate: the Evolution of the System by Lacey, Walter Kirkpatrick