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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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Source of energy for gliding movement in M. xanthus has been reported. The electrochemical membrane potential was proposed to power gliding motility in Flexibacter . Spormann,1999 43 Positive bacterial chemotaxis        Bacteria do not always move aimlessly but are attracted by such nutrients as sugars and amino acids, and are repelled by many harmful substances and bacterial waste products. Chemotaxis can be demonstrated on an agar plate that contains various nutrients. Positive chemotaxis by E.

Composed of single flagellin fiber. Lack 9+2 structure of eukaryotic flagella and cilia. Flagellar motion resembles spinning propeller. Flagella, usually at the poles of the cells (for movement) and fimbriae or pili, smaller thread-like appendages, usually at multiple locations (function in attachment or conjugation). There is some evidence that flagellated cells produce larger lesions than non-flagellated mutants. 35 Categories of flagellation   Atrich/atrichous= No flagella, Monotrichous/Monotrich= single flagellum, Peritrichous/Peritrich= flagella all around, Amphitrichous/Amphitrich= flagella at both ends, Lophotrichous/Lophotrich= tuft of many flagella at one end or both ends.

G. chemotaxis). The flagellum's motor is much like that of, say, an electric mixer, but the mixer's is driven by electrons instead of protons. 60 Mechanism of flagellar rotatory motor and locomotion        Flagellum is propeller in action. The energy used to drive the flagellar rotation comes from the proton motive force. As a proton enters the cell through the mot complex, its energy is coupled to movement. In order to achieve a single rotation, 1000 protons must be translocated. The speed of rotation is directly proportional to the proton motive force.

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Bacterial cell structure by Nader Hassanzadeh

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