By Geoffrey Jones
The worldwide attractiveness enterprise permeates our lives, influencing how we understand ourselves and what it really is to be appealing. The manufacturers and companies that have formed this undefined, resembling Avon, Coty, Est?e Lauder, L'Or?al, and Shiseido, have imagined attractiveness for us. This publication presents the 1st authoritative historical past of the worldwide good looks from its emergence within the 19th century to the current day, exploring how latest worldwide giants grew. It exhibits how successive generations of marketers outfitted manufacturers which formed perceptions of attractiveness, and the enterprise organisations had to industry them. They democratized entry to attractiveness items, as soon as the privilege of elites, yet additionally they outlined the gender and ethnic borders of attractiveness, and its organization with a handful of towns, particularly Paris and later big apple. the end result was once a homogenization of attractiveness beliefs during the global. this present day globalization is altering the sweetness back; its impression will be obvious in a variety of competing innovations. worldwide manufacturers have swept into China, Russia, and India, yet even as, those manufacturers are having to answer a miles better variety of cultures and life as new markets are unfolded around the world. within the 21st century, good looks is back being re-imagined anew. Fast evidence from the book: - Eug?ne Schueller, the founding father of the world's largest good looks corporation L'Or?al, invented the world's first secure artificial hair dye after quite a few experiments in his personal kitchen, with the police being on a regular basis referred to as due to explosions. - Fran?ois Coty, one in all France's maximum good looks marketers, received his body spray company begun by means of smashing one in all his bottles at the ground of a number one Parisian division shop in a profitable gambit to get clients to sniff it. - Upon arrival to the U.S. in 1904, the Polish-born make-up artist Max Faktorowicz took the identify given to him at Ellis Island: Max issue. - The Communist regime of Mao Zedong banned using cosmetics within the Seventies, and viewers to China struggled to inform males from girls. at the present time China is the world's fourth greatest good looks marketplace, with so much best Western manufacturers bought as dermis lighteners. - Anita Roddick proven the 1st physique store in Brighton, England, to finance her husband's ambition to spend years driving on horseback from Buenos Aires to long island urban. - body spray used to be inebriated as a well-being drink correct as much as the 19th century, and males have been as most likely as girls to exploit cosmetics. - through 1948, ninety percentage of yankee ladies used lipstick and two-thirds used rouge.
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Extra info for Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Business
11. Feydeau, “De l’hygiène,” p. 17. 12. Constance Classen, David Howes, and Anthony Synnott, Aroma: The Cultural History of Smell (New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 73. 13. Stamelman, Perfume, p. 56; Feydeau, “De l’hygiène,” pp. 16–17. 14. Catherine Lanoë, La poudre et le fard: Une histoire des cosmétiques de la renaissance aux lumières (Seyssel, France: Éditions Champ Vallon, 2008), ch. 6. 15. Morag Sarah Martin, “Consuming Beauty: The Commerce of Cosmetics in France 1750–1800,” unpubl. , University of California, Irvine, 1999, chs 1 and 2.
Roman emperors were said to have slept and bathed in a world of scent. While much of the extensive knowledge of fragrances in ancient Rome was lost in Europe after the fall of Rome, it survived in the Islamic civilizations which flourished during the European Middle Ages as centers of science and culture. Arab and Persian pharmacists and perfumers used new “essential oils”—the compounds containing the distinctive scents of plants or animals used to make fragrances—from the aromatic plants found on the Indian peninsula.
In 1880 the perfumer Paul Parquet became a joint owner of Houbigant. Two years later he created Fougère royale, a scent containing synthetic coumarin, the smell of newly mown hay. The new fragrance, based on the interplay between lavender, coumarin, and oak moss, was used both as a soap perfume and as a perfume in its own right. In 1889 Guerlain launched the equally novel Jicky. With the death of Pierre-François-Pascal in 1864, the Guerlain business had been left to his two sons, Aimé and Gabriel, who divided the roles of perfumer and manager between them.
Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Business by Geoffrey Jones