By K. Fisher, W. E. Newton (auth.), Barry E. Smith, Raymond L. Richards, William E. Newton (eds.)
Biological nitrogen fixation presents greater than 50% of the full annual enter of the fundamental point nitrogen to global agriculture. therefore, it really is of mammoth agronomic significance and demanding to nutrition offers, quite in constructing nations.
This booklet, with chapters authored through the world over well known specialists, presents a entire and targeted account of the attention-grabbing historical past of the method - together with the mind-blowing discoveries of molybdenum-independent nitrogenases and superoxide-dependent nitrogenase; a overview of Man's makes an attempt to emulate the organic technique - such a lot effectively with the commercially dominant Haber-Bosch technique; and the present kingdom of the knowledge artwork with admire to the enzymes - known as nitrogenases - accountable for organic nitrogen fixation.
The preliminary chapters use a historic method of the organic and business techniques, by means of an outline of assay methodologies. the following set of chapters specializes in the classical enzyme, the molybdenum nitrogenase, and info its biosynthesis, constitution, composition, and mechanism of motion in addition to detailing either how variations of its part proteins are developed via recombinant DNA know-how and the way computational thoughts are being utilized. the subtle chemical modelling of the metal-containing clusters within the enzyme is reviewed subsequent, via an outline of the 2 molybdenum-independent nitrogenases - first, the vanadium-containing enzyme after which the iron-only nitrogenase - including a few recommendations as to why they exist! Then follows an updated therapy of the sincerely "non-classical" houses of the superoxide-dependent nitrogenase, which extra heavily resembles molybdenum-containing hydroxylases and comparable enzymes, like nitrate reductase, that it does the opposite nitrogenases. every one bankruptcy comprises an in depth checklist of references.
This publication is the self-contained first quantity of a complete seven-volume sequence. No different to be had paintings offers the updated and in-depth insurance of this sequence and this quantity. This publication is meant to function an essential reference paintings for all scientists operating during this quarter, together with agriculture and the heavily comparable metals-in-biology quarter; to aid scholars to go into this demanding quarter of study; and to supply technology directors easy accessibility to very important proper details.
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Extra resources for Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation: Nitrogenases, Relevant Chemical Models and Commercial Processes
Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the transformation of world food production. Cambridge: MIT Press. Sprent, J. , and Raven, J. A. (1985). Evolution of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, B 85, 215-237. Sprent, J. , and Raven, J. A. (1992). Evolution of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. In G. Stacey, R. H. Burris, and H. J. ), Biological nitrogen fixation (pp. 461-496). New York: Chapman and Hall. Stephenson, M. (1938). Bacterial metabolism, 2nd ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Stewart, W.
The second section will deal with the development of the Haber-Bosch process and the related industrial fixation methods, and the eventual triumph of the process used today. 33 B. E. Smith, R. L. Richards and W. E. ), Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation: Nitrogenases, Relevant Chemical Models, and Commercial Processes, 33-54. © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 34 LEIGH The last section will describe briefly the modern process and discuss the ways in which it might possibly develop. 2. DINITROGEN CHEMISTRY UP TO ca.
1933). Knöllchenbildung und chlorose der gelben lupine (Lupinus luteus). Ztschr. , Dungung u. , 29A, 59-64. Simon, J. (1907). Die widerstandsfähigkeit der wurzelbakterien der leguminosen und ihre bedeutung für die bodenimpfung. Jahresber. Ver. Angew. , 5, 132-160. , and Silver, W. S. (1967). Biological reductions catalyzed by symbiotic nitrogen-fixing tissues. Bacteriol. , 112. Smil, V. (2001). Enriching the earth. Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the transformation of world food production. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation: Nitrogenases, Relevant Chemical Models and Commercial Processes by K. Fisher, W. E. Newton (auth.), Barry E. Smith, Raymond L. Richards, William E. Newton (eds.)