By David Gillieson
This e-book is geared toward scholars of the normal setting, however it also will entice these - cavers, environmental managers and box naturalists - who're serious about the underground international and its population. it's illustrated all through with pictures, maps and line diagrams, just about all of that are unique to the publication.
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Coastal terrace • •. 6 Plan and section of Nauru Island, Central Pacific, showing its surficial geology, the zonation of groundwater and its conductivity gradient. From Jankowski and Jacobson (1991). LsJcm) isolines SEAWATER A' 0 I Evolution of the Karst Drainage System From the previous section it is apparent that the location of the flow net below the karst water level is dependent on the rock structure and the length of the drainage system from inputs to outputs. Most phreatic conduits contain a single loop in the saturated zone, but multiple loops are known where there are local peculiarities of structure or in steeply bedded limestones with interbeds.
The lower phreatic zone, at depths of a few hundred metres, is termed the bathyphreatic zone. The lowest po'rtion of the phreatic zone, where water moves slowly in enlarging voids of varying size, is teoned the nothephreas or stagnant phreatic zone. Caves may be regarded as three-dimensional networks of conduits of varying size, from a few millimetres to tens of metres in diameter, which extend from inputs to outputs and transcend these zone boundaries, either at a single time or over the lifetime of a particular network.
Most phreatic conduits contain a single loop in the saturated zone, but multiple loops are known where there are local peculiarities of structure or in steeply bedded limestones with interbeds. Below the current active loop or tier is a complex of developing conduits which Worthington (1991) has argued are dominated by sulphaterich waters. These conduits may also form along other chemodines (fresh-salt) or along what Lowe (1989) has termed inception horizons, zones of mineralization or unconformities.
Caves: Processes, Development and Management (Natural Environment) by David Gillieson