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Chem. 181, 845 (1949). Geyer, R. , / . Biol. Chem. 188, 185 (1951); ibid. 186, 461 (1950). 10» ChaUüoff, 1. , Goldman, D . , Brown, G. , Dauben, W. , Biol. Chem. 190, 229 (1951). , and Stansly, P. , / . Biol. Chem. 204, 67 (1953). 111 Stadtman, E. , and Barker, H. , / . Biol. Chem. 180, 1095 (1949); ibid. 181, 221 (1949). 11« Barker, H. , Phosphorus Metabolism 1, 204 (1951). 46 DAVID Ε. GREEN (c) Fatty acid dehydrogenation. -4e- Butyryl CoA > acetoacetyl CoA (20) (d) Cleavage reaction. Acetoacetyl CoA + CoA 2 acetyl CoA (21) Thus the bacterial system shares two of the five basic reactions, but differs both in the process by which the fatty acid is activated and in the process by which CoA is regenerated for a repeat cycle.

Phosphorus Metabolism 1, 297 (1951). ENZYMES IN METABOLIC SEQUENCES 41 tions in the electron transfer sequence are linked with the esterification of inorganic phosphate (Pi): a-Ketoglutarate Pi DPN Pi FAD Pi Pi cytochrome c -> oxygen (3) The P : 0 ratio for the oxidation of malate and citrate is 3, whereas that for succinate is 2 . , oxidation of a-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA. : a-Ketoglutarate + D P N + + CoA Succinyl CoA + Pi + A D P succinyl CoA + D P N H + CO2 succinate + ATP (4) (5) Energy of oxidation is conserved as it were in the form of a thioester bond between the succinyl group and CoA.

D P N appears to be required for fatty acid oxidation and there are indications also of the participation of a flavin component. Another important property of the CI. kluyveri fatty acid oxidizing system is that of reversibility. Acetyl phosphate and acetate can give rise to butyrate (or caproate) by reversal of the pathway by which butyrate can be oxidized to acetyl phosphate and acetate. Kornberg and Pricer^^^** have been the first to demonstrate synthesis of phospholipin in a well-defined enzyme system.

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Chemical Pathways of Metabolism

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