By Prof. Dr. Alfred Bögli (auth.)
The current book on karst hydrology and actual speleology combines matters that have in past times been taken care of individually. the 2 fields of information have long past their separate methods, much less because of ameliorations in material than of various ways. the point of interest in karst hydrology lies within the description of subter ranean water with its actual and chemical homes, while actual speleology de scribes subterranean cavities with their contents (air, water, and sediments), which gen erally were created through water. Such cavities may be thoroughly interpreted in simple terms via a data of karst hydrology, but they in flip yield symptoms of the professional perties of karst water. Karst hydrology and actual speleology are hence elements of the subterranean karst phenomenon and may be seen congruently. This publication addresses geologists, hydrologists, geomorphologists, geographers, and karstologists, chiefly speleologists, in addition to all acquaintances of caves, specifically the cavers between them. Its contents needs to for that reason attract teams: on one hand to the academically educated, even if college school, graduates, or scholars, who ordinarily have the mandatory simple wisdom as a way to comprehend the theoretical com ments; nonetheless to the laymen, who've fust-hand adventure from their very own observations in caves, yet who frequently don't dispose over the medical beginning priceless for an figuring out of the phenomena. for that reason sometimes extra awareness could be given to difficulties of an easier nature and to questions of technical terminology.
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1961). Gerstenhauer and Pfeffer (1966) found that the primary MgC03 content of a rock considerably reduces the amount of CaC0 3 dissolved in the unit of time. Experiments with artifIcially produced mixtures of CaC0 3 and MgC03 as sediments show a sinking of the amounts of CaC0 3 dissolved in 28 h from 17 ppm in the case of pure CaC0 3 to approx. 6 ppm with 2% MgC03 content and to 3 ppm with 95%. This phenomenon presumably plays an important role in karstifIcation. Closer investigations in the fIeld are still lacking.
When the water flows into the air-filled space it is undersaturated in relation to P2 . The graph shows an exponential curve where the partial pressure gradually adjusts to the pressure in equilibrium with the P2 as atmospheric CO 2 diffuses into the water. T refers to the time (t) which passes before 90% of the change in concentration necessary for the equilibrium has taken place. 1. D I r I • P2 -...... T~ r - I PC0 2 P2 90"10 C0 2eq PI < I I ,I _ - - C02~q . - // ~ PI 0 Fig. 17. Temporal change in the CO, content in underground water when PI < pz , I T t P2 In ascending karst springs (vauclusian springs) nonnally PI > P2.
Therefore limestone is dissolved on the surface as well as in the underground. The proportions of the two areas of removal cannot be determined from the lime content of the water. The rate of reaction increases to double with a rise in temperature of lOoC. For this reason the dissolution oflimestone is accelerated in warm zones, and similarly the adjustment to the lower Pco 2 of the open air, also. 7). Thus measurements in the tropics must be made within the karst region itself or else at the springs.
Karst Hydrology and Physical Speleology by Prof. Dr. Alfred Bögli (auth.)