By Ana Lúcia Leitão, Francisco J. Enguita
This ebook provides a state of the art compilation of articles at the function of non-coding RNAs as pivotal molecules for setting up useful relationships among varied organisms. It additionally describes how non-coding RNA molecules can act as dynamic verbal exchange units and the way they modulate the interplay among assorted kingdoms. It describes examples together with viruses, micro organism, fungi, and better organisms similar to protozoa which are desirous about pathogenic or symbiotic interactions, and the jobs of other households of non-coding RNAs inside of those relationships. each one bankruptcy presents readers molecular and practical insights, breaking down the subjacent mechanisms and exploring their useful implications and destiny functions. greater than sixty years after the root of the “RNA tie membership” by means of George Gamow, new roles for non-coding RNA molecules are becoming revealed.
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Additional resources for Non-coding RNAs and Inter-kingdom Communication
2013). It has long been known that the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor, which is speciﬁcally expressed in primary CD4 + T cells, enhances HIV gene expression by binding to the viral LTR (Cron et al. 2000). Intriguingly, the nuclear import of NFAT is repressed via the interaction of lncRNA NRON with importin-beta family proteins (Sharma et al. 2011; Willingham et al. 2005), thus NRON is a negative regulator of NFAT activity. HIV is able to leverage the gene enhancement function of NFAT by blocking NRON expression early during the infection cycle although the mechanism remains unclear 34 S.
The viral integrase protein is responsible for cleaving the host DNA and together with host proteins, enables integration of the proviral genome (Demeulemeester et al. 2015). The generation of a double strand break (DSB) within the cellular chromatin is inherent in this, and because there is no intact sister chromatid to serve as a template, DSBs are the most severe DNA lesions for mammalian cells to endure (Jackson and Bartek 2009). DSBs are so poorly tolerated that a single such lesion within an essential gene can kill a cell (Khanna and Jackson 2001; Rich et al.
1). In addition, the viral accessory proteins Nef and Vpu seem to have contrasting effects on NRON depending on the stage of infection, although they may be acting as ‘molecular rheostats’ to ﬁnely tune T cell activation in favour of viral replication, not cell death. Within all mammalian cells, the nucleus contains many distinct domains including nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Within paraspeckles, the nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 lncRNA, NEAT1, modulates the cellular response to stress via triage of speciﬁc proteins within paraspeckles (Imamura et al.
Non-coding RNAs and Inter-kingdom Communication by Ana Lúcia Leitão, Francisco J. Enguita