By Heinz P Bloch; Claire Soares
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In this case, we have shown an application such as a conveyor where the load-torque requirement is constant from 0 RPM to approximately 1800 RPM. The difference between the motor speed-torque curve and the load line is the accelerating torque and is indicated by the cross-hatched area. ' Z/J 100 ACCELERATING TORQUE / / 1 / J ,' 1 111 ! ,r I r 0 Ia < 0 ,J -' Ik / PULL-UP TORQUE '/A Y/ '//J '//, Y/ //J_... 9=ULL-LOAD TORQUE t I ! LOAD TORQUE REQUIREMENT 1800 RPM FIGURE 1-16 Speed-torque characteristics of induction motors started at full voltage.
By starting the motor with low voltage and low frequency, the inrush current associated with across-the-line starting is completely eliminated. This results in a soft start for the motor. In addition, the motor operates between the breakdown torque point and synchronous speed point as soon as it is started, as compared with starting across the line, in which case the motor accelerates to a point between the synchronous speed and breakdown torque point. Summary The maximum torque for an induction motor is limited by the adjustable frequency controller current rating.
FIGURE 3-9 A triple-stage turbine with single shaft system. (Source: Rolls-Royce, UK) Gas Turbines The number of shafts, and therefore turbines, varies with the type of engine; high compression ratio engines usually have two shafts, driving high and low pressure compressors. On mechanical drive engines, driving torque is derived from a free power turbine (Figure 3-10). This method allows the turbine to run at its optimum speed because it is mechanically independent of other turbine and compressor shafts.
Process plant machinery by Heinz P Bloch; Claire Soares